International Equine Disease Report, Third Quarter
- Jan 9, 2017
- Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)
- Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp fever, EIA)
- West Nile Virus (WNV)
- Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE)
- Protein-Losing Enteropathy
- Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
- Equine Herpesvirus (EHV)
- Pneumonia (Rhodococcus)
- African Horse Sickness
The International Collating Center, in Newmarket, U.K., and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks for the third quarter of 2016.
Republic of South Africa reported outbreaks of African horse sickness in endemic areas of the country, but none in the Western Cape controlled zone.
Equine influenza was recorded in Germany (isolated case), the U.K. (case in an unvaccinated filly), and the United States, in which the disease is endemic. Outbreaks of the disease were confirmed in California, Delaware, Florida, Kentucky, New Jersey, and New York.
Strangles was reported by France, Germany, Ireland, Singapore, and the United States. The number of outbreaks varied from four in France, twelve in Germany (all isolated cases), nineteen cases on two premises in Ireland, a single case in an imported horse in Singapore, and multiple outbreaks involving 17 states in the United States. Outbreaks within the United States consisted of 99 cases confirmed on an estimated 36 premises, one of which represented co-infection with equine herpesvirus-4 (EHV-4).
France and South Africa recorded outbreaks of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection. In the case of the former, hyperthermia (elevated body temperature) was the only clinical sign observed. Clinical details were not provided for the outbreak in South Africa. Outbreaks of EHV-1 abortion were reported by Ireland, South Africa and the U.K., all involving isolated cases of the disease. Neurologic disease related to EHV-1 was confirmed in France, South Africa, and the United States, each represented by single cases of the disease.
Respiratory disease caused by EHV-4 was recorded by France (seven outbreaks), South Africa and Switzerland (single cases of infection), and the U.K. (two outbreaks; limited number of infected horses in each instance). Germany reported a case of neurologic disease from which EHV-4 was detected from a nasal swab.
Infection with EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 was confirmed in the United States, principally associated with evidence of respiratory disease.
Equine infectious anemia was recorded in Canada and the United States. Nine cases were diagnosed on three premises in Saskatchewan, Canada, and two cases were confirmed on each of two premises in New York and Oklahoma.
France recorded that equine piroplasmosis was endemic in the country. In the United States, Theileria equi infection was confirmed in Quarter Horses engaged in nonsanctioned racing in Tennessee (17 cases) and Wyoming and Utah (21 cases).
Germany reported nine cases of contagious equine metritis on eight premises, the majority in stallions and horses of the Icelandic breed.
The United States reported cases/outbreaks of salmonellosis during the third quarter. Two cases involved serogroup B Salmonella spp., 10 with serogroup C1 spp. and two with serogroup D1 spp.
Outbreaks of clostridial enteritis due to Clostridium perfringens Type A, genotyped as β-2 toxin positive, were recorded by the United States, two in Kentucky and two in Minnesota.
France and Germany confirmed limited outbreaks of rotavirus infection in foals.
One case of infection with Lawsonia intracellularis was diagnosed in a foal in Kentucky.
Single cases of rabies were recorded in Oklahoma and Florida.
The United States reported 49 cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis during the period under review. The greatest numbers of cases were confirmed in Florida, Wisconsin, and South Carolina.
The United States confirmed a total of 88 cases of West Nile encephalitis involving 17 states. The vast majority were in unvaccinated horses or those with incomplete vaccination histories.
Rhodococcus-related disease was considered endemic in the United States. Notwithstanding the fact that it is very difficult to estimate the prevalence of this infection, some 40 cases were confirmed during the third quarter.
Japan confirmed eight cases of Getah virus infection on one premises, the majority having incomplete vaccination histories. Infected horses displayed typical clinical signs of the disease.
The United States reported three cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Maryland and West Virginia. Isolated cases of ehrlichiosis were also confirmed in Germany and Switzerland.
This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd’s, London.
About the Author
POLL: University Equine Hospitals