International Equine Disease Report, First Quarter 2014

The International Collating Center, Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following equine disease outbreaks for the first quarter of 2014.

South Africa reported the seasonal occurrence of African horse sickness. Outbreaks were confirmed on properties in several districts in the protection and surveillance zones of the Western Cape.

Strangles outbreaks were report by Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates (UAE), the United Kingdom (U.K.), and the United States. Two outbreaks involving eight horses were confirmed in Denmark. France recorded 12 outbreaks. A limited number of cases were diagnosed on two premises in Germany. Ireland reported 19 cases on premises in two provinces, and Switzerland reported two cases. The UAE reported a carryover of the disease from late 2013, with an overall estimate of 77 cases on nine premises. Dual strangles and equine herpesvirus-4 infection was diagnosed in the U.K. Strangles was reported to be endemic in the United States.

Limited cases of equine influenza were recorded in Ireland, the U.K., and the United States.

Respiratory disease caused by equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) was confirmed in France (six outbreaks) and the U.K. France, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, the U.K., and the United States all recorded outbreaks of EHV-1 abortion. Sporadic cases were confirmed in France and the U.K.; multiple cases were recorded in Germany (eight premises), Japan (16 premises), Switzerland (one premises), and the United States (two premises).

Additionally, EHV-1-related neurologic disease was reported by France (sporadic), Germany (sporadic), Japan (sporadic), New Zealand, and the United States. New Zealand recorded the first outbreak of the disease in the country that encompassed 15 cases on one farm of which seven were euthanized or died. The United States confirmed a significant number of outbreaks in eight states. Whereas many outbreaks involved one to two cases, those in Illinois and Utah were more significant, with a high clinical-attack rate and case-fatality rate.

Further, EHV-4 related disease was reported by France (10 outbreaks of respiratory disease), Germany (single case of abortion), and the U.K. (isolated cases of dual infection with strangles on two premises).

Evidence of equine arteritis virus infection was reported from Germany (three carrier stallions), Switzerland (one case), and the United States (serologic evidence of infection in breeding stock in eight states).

A limited number of cases of EHV-2 and -5 infections were reported by the United States.

Canada and the United States recorded outbreaks of equine infectious anemia. Twenty-one cases were diagnosed in Canada: three in Alberta (one premises) and 18 in Saskatchewan (five premises). The disease was confirmed in six horses on two shared premises in Tennessee in the United States.

Piroplasmosis was reported by France (endemic), Spain (endemic), UAE (endemic in non-Thoroughbreds), and the United States. The United States diagnosed Theileria equi infection in three Quarter Horse racehorses and one Spanish purebred.

Germany confirmed contagious equine metritis in 20 non-Thoroughbred horses (14 stallions and six mares).

Abortions due to leptospiral infection were confirmed in the United States (10 cases).

Eight cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion associated with Amycolatopsis spp. infection were confirmed in Kentucky.

Abortions due to Salmonella abortus equi were reported by Japan. The disease was confirmed in four non-Thoroughbred mares on one premises.

Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, and the United States recorded limited numbers of cases of salmonellosis, with Group B salmonellae implicated in U.S. cases.

Cases of proliferative enteropathy due to Lawsonia intracellularis infection were reported in several states in the United States.

Clostridial enteritis was only recorded in the United States. Several cases of C. difficile toxin types A and B and six cases of C. perfringens type A were diagnosed in young foals.

France and Germany reported a very limited number of outbreaks of rotaviral diarrhea, one in France and two in Germany, the latter involving a total of six foals.

Rhodococcal disease was recorded in the United States, where it is endemic.

Isolated cases of Lyme disease (Switzerland), tetanus (Switzerland), and rabies (United States) were reported during the period under review.

This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

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Equine Disease Quarterly

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