International Equine Disease Report, Second Quarter 2011

The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks in the second quarter* of 2011.

Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported from Germany, South Africa, and Sweden. The causal agent of CEM was detected in one mare in Germany from embryo flush fluid. The mare was inseminated with semen from a carrier stallion imported previously into South Africa. Sweden reported one case in a Trotter mare inseminated with semen from an imported stallion.

Italy reported outbreaks of dourine (Trypanosoma equiperdum) on several premises. The occurrence was linked to the importation of a mare from Holland in September 2010. Mild signs of dourine were described in 10 horses on five premises; two horses were euthanized. Two stallions were confirmed serologically positive. Six more serologically positive cases on another premises near Naples were linked to the index premises.

A single case of equine coital exanthema (equine herpesvirus-3) was reported from the U.K.

Equine influenza was diagnosed in three Draft foals at a premises in France on which eight other foals had died, presumably but not stated, from influenza. Cases were also confirmed in adult horses. Ireland, the U.K, and the United States recorded isolated cases.

Strangles was reported in Germany (five cases); South Africa experienced ongoing outbreaks. An outbreak involving six horses was confirmed in Sweden.

Numerous outbreaks of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) were reported. France recorded one case of respiratory disease. Abortions were reported from Argentina (2), France (4), Germany (1), Ireland (5) South Africa (1), Turkey (21), and the U.K. (6). EHV-1 neurologic disease was confirmed in France (a single case on one premise, several cases on another) and Ireland (three cases involving two premises). EHV-4 was responsible for one mare having abortion and respiratory disease in Germany.

France confirmed isolated equine viral arteritis (EVA) cases on four premises as well as an outbreak later. EVA cases were also confirmed in Germany and Sweden. Ireland reported several seropositive mares and stallions, none with clinical evidence of EVA and some with histories of vaccination.

Equine infectious anemia was reported from Germany (three cases including one clinical case imported from Romania) and Japan (single case).

Reports of equine piroplasmosis were received from France (endemic), Ireland (case of congenitally acquired Babesia caballi infection in a neonatal foal out of an imported mare), South Africa (endemic), Switzerland (endemic), and the United Arab Emirates (endemic). In the United States, two Theileria equi seropositive Quarter Horses were identified in Texas, both euthanized. An imported horse in Florida was confirmed positive and was exported; two T. equi seropositive horses, one in North Carolina and one in Tennessee, are under state quarantine. The majority of positive cases of infection are Quarter Horse racehorses. With the exception of the extensive outbreak of equine piroplasmosis on a large cattle ranch in southeast Texas first detected in November 2009, there has been no evidence of tick transmission in other states.

South Africa reported more than 100 cases of equine encephalosis on numerous premises involving all types of horses. Clinical features of the disease were mild.

One case of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis was diagnosed in a vaccinated Thoroughbred yearling in Florida, USA. Four cases of West Nile encephalitis were reported in the USA and several cases in Greece.

Increased cases of neurologic disease were reported from Australia: New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia. Initial reports suggest association with Kunjin virus or Murray Valley encephalitis virus. Victoria reported evidence of Ross River virus infection associated with a musculoskeletal syndrome.

Four outbreaks of salmonellosis involving 24 horses and five outbreaks (10 cases) of rotaviral enteritis were reported from Ireland. The United States reported foal outbreaks of clostridial enteritis.

Equine grass sickness was confirmed in Switzerland: five cases in non-Thoroughbreds on three premises.

Two separate non-Thoroughbred cases of mild anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were reported from Switzerland.

*First Quarter Report for Australia

This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

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Equine Disease Quarterly

Equine Disease Quarterly is a quarterly equine disease research newsletter published by the University of Kentucky's Gluck Equine Research Center, and funded by underwriters at Lloyd's of London, brokers, and their agents.

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