The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks in the fourth quarter* of 2010.

Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported in Germany (two mares) and France (one case). No evidence of T. equigenitalis was found in 292 stallions (114 Quarter Horses) located in 28 states in the U.S. that were screened as part of a voluntary testing program by USDA Animal Plant Inspection Service Veterinary Services.

Isolated cases of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) related respiratory disease were diagnosed in Germany and Italy. Cases of EHV-1 abortion were confirmed in Argentina (two), Japan (five cases on four premises), South Africa (15 cases on five premises), France (one), Germany (one), UK (two), and the U.S. (six in Kentucky).

Two cases of EHV-1 related neurologic disease in trotters were diagnosed in France. An outbreak in the U.K. involved 10 of 40 horses in a livery stable; nine were successfully treated. France recorded outbreaks of EHV-1 respiratory and neurologic disease on three premises, characterized by fever, anorexia, coughing, and nasal discharge accompanied by neurologic signs of varying severity. An additional two cases were confirmed in foals; one died.

An extensive outbreak of EHV-4 associated respiratory disease was reported in 4- to 6-month-old foals in Argentina. Limited cases were also diagnosed in Switzerland (EHV-4 detected with EHV-5), the U.K., and the U.S.

Equine influenza was reported from France (two cases, two premises) and the U.K. (one case).

Strangles was reported from France (nine premises), Germany (two cases), Ireland (seven cases on four premises), Sweden (riding stables, one racing stable, and one stud farm), Switzerland (isolated cases), the U.K. (endemic, especially among non- Thoroughbreds), and the U.S. (limited cases in Kentucky and Florida). An extensive outbreak of strangles occurred in recently captured range horses in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management facility in Utah, and multiple isolations of S. equi and S. zooepidemicus were made from abscessed glands.

Equine infectious anemia was confirmed in Western Queensland, Australia (three cases); France (two cases, one that had been imported from Romania via Belgium); Germany (22 continuing outbreaks in four federal states); and Italy (15 outbreaks).

France, Spain, and the United Arab Emirates report that equine piroplasmosis (EP) is endemic in their respective countries. Germany diagnosed one case of Theileria equi and two cases of Babesia caballi infections. The U.S. reported primarily T. equi infections as part of an extensive testing and follow-up investigation program resulting from the 2009 discovery of the disease on a ranch in Texas. Of 2,500 horses tested, 413 T. equi seropositive horses were all epidemiologically linked to the index premises. An additional 143 horses (the vast majority seropositive for T. equi) unrelated to the index premises in Texas have been identified in 16 states. Many of the positive horses are Quarter Horse racehorses with representation from other breeds, including Thoroughbreds. Several horses had been imported into the U.S., many from known EP-endemic countries. Nine states currently require EP testing for horses competing in sanctioned horse racing events. Further epidemiological investigations and testing are continuing.

The U.K. reported two stallions persistently infected with equine arteritis virus (one was a recent import); both animals have been gelded.

The U.S. reported 36 cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis since late September. Of the 10 affected states, the highest number of cases were in New York and Michigan.

West Nile encephalitis was reported from Italy (14 outbreaks) and the U.S. (86 cases), where the majority of affected horses were unvaccinated.

Salmonellosis was diagnosed in Germany (three cases) and Ireland (two cases). One case of leptospiral infection (not abortion related) was reported in Kentucky, and a case of abortion associated with Enterobacter agglomerans was reported in Queensland, Australia.

Infection with Lawsonia intracellularis was confirmed in 18 foals in Kentucky and one in Indiana.

*Third Quarter Report for Australia

This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

About the Author

Equine Disease Quarterly

Equine Disease Quarterly is a quarterly equine disease research newsletter published by the University of Kentucky's Gluck Equine Research Center, and funded by underwriters at Lloyd's of London, brokers, and their agents.

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