International Equine Disease Report Second Quarter 2010

The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks.

Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported from Germany, Italy, and the USA. A single mare case was reported out of 1,183 animals tested in Germany. Italy recorded T. equigenitalis infection in one non-Thoroughbred mare and two non-Thoroughbred stallions and confirmed T. asinigenitalis in six donkey stallions. An Arabian stallion imported earlier in the year was confirmed a carrier in California.

Outbreaks of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection were reported from France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the UK, and the USA. The main manifestation was abortion: France reported cases on two premises; Germany diagnosed 14 cases; Ireland, three cases; Japan, eight cases; South Africa, one case; the UK, nine cases and one foal death; the USA, four cases.

Outbreaks of EHV-1 neurologic disease were recorded in Ireland, Japan, Switzerland and the UK. In Ireland, Japan, and the UK these outbreaks were limited to one or two animals on individual premises. The outbreak in Switzerland was extensive, affecting 19 horses and one donkey on one premises; four horses were euthanized and one died.

Cases of respiratory disease related to equine herpesvirus-4 were confirmed in Argentina (four cases), Germany (six cases), and the UK (one case). The U.K. and Ireland reported single cases of abortion.

Equine influenza was recorded on four riding schools in France where none of the horses had been vaccinated. In the U.K. four outbreaks were reported, one involving more than 180 horses, ponies, and donkeys out of 274 equids. The majority were unvaccinated against influenza.

Outbreaks of strangles were confirmed on two farms in Victoria, Australia; seven premises in France (unvaccinated animals); and nine premises (single cases) in Ireland. Sporadic cases were confirmed in Italy, Germany, and Switzerland. South Africa reported strangles in both Thoroughbreds and non-Thoroughbreds. Several states in the USA reported fewer outbreaks than in recent years.

Equine infectious anemia (EIA) was reported from Argentina, Germany, and Italy. Multiple cases were diagnosed on a Thoroughbred farm in Buenos Aires Province, with 12 additional cases detected in a follow-up serological survey. Germany diagnosed EIA in two horses on one premises; both were euthanized. Of 26,150 equids tested in Italy, 184 were positive; none of the positives involved breeding, race, or sports horses.

Equine viral arteritis (EVA) was reported from Argentina and Germany. The occurrence was limited to 12 premises in Buenos Aires Province and was associated with importation of frozen semen. With the exception of abortions in Thoroughbreds on the index premises, all of the cases were in sports horses. There was no evidence of spread to the three racetracks in Buenos Aires. Germany confirmed two cases.

South Africa reported outbreaks of African horse sickness, mainly in young, non-vaccinated equids.

In late May, the USA confirmed the reappearance of vesicular stomatitis (New Jersey serotype) on two Arizona premises involving four horses.

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis was reported from Florida (33 cases) and Georgia (two cases). One case of West Nile encephalitis was reported from California.

Outbreaks of equine piroplasmosis were recorded in South Africa and the USA. The former diagnosed infection with Babesia caballi or/and Theileria equi in multiple breeds. The USA recorded 28 cases of T. equi in Texas, 10 in Georgia, and 19 in New Mexico (including two cases of B. caballi). There were several reports of T. equi positive horses in California, Colorado, Florida, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Oklahoma.

Other diseases reported for the second quarter were sporadic cases of coital exanthema (UK), salmonellosis (Ireland), grass sickness (Switzerland), proliferative enteropathy (USA), and neonatal clostridiosis (USA).

* First Quarter Report for Australia.


This is an excerpt from the October 2010 issue of Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by Lloyd's of London underwriters, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

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