The International Collating Center, Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following equine disease outbreaks for the fourth quarter* of 2014.

Outbreaks of African horse sickness were reported in four provinces in South Africa in which the disease is considered endemic.

The United States recorded continued vesicular stomatitis activity, all involving the New Jersey serotype of the virus. The disease was confirmed on an additional 68 premises including 60 in Colorado, seven in Texas, and one in Nebraska. In 2014, 17 counties were affected in Colorado, 13 in Texas, and one in Nebraska, with infection confirmed in 584 equids and 60 bovids on 433 premises.

France, Germany, Ireland, Switzerland, and the United States recorded outbreaks of strangles. A total of 23 outbreaks were confirmed in 18 regions in France. Isolated cases were reported in three regions in Germany; Ireland confirmed 14 cases between the provinces of Leinster and Munster. Two outbreaks were recorded in Switzerland, one involving 50 of 100 at-risk horses. The disease is endemic in the United States with 41 cases confirmed on 22 premises in seven states.

Equine influenza outbreaks were reported by France, the United Kingdom and the United States. France confirmed four outbreaks. Some 18 outbreaks were confirmed in 15 counties in the United Kingdom (in horses, ponies, and donkeys), many involving unvaccinated animals. Endemic in the United States, outbreaks were recorded in Florida, Kentucky, Oregon, and Washington.

Equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 related diseases were reported by France, Germany, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Respiratory disease was confirmed in France (six outbreaks), Germany (two outbreaks), Switzerland (one case), the United Kingdom (three outbreaks all involving donkeys) and the USA. Cases of abortion were diagnosed in Japan (isolated cases on five premises, all in vaccinated Thoroughbreds), South Africa (one case) and the United States (two cases). One outbreak of EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy involving two horses was confirmed in Idaho. Outbreaks of EHV-4 respiratory disease were reported by France (11 outbreaks in five regions), Germany (single cases on two premises), and the United Kingdom (one outbreak involving three Thoroughbred yearlings). Multiple cases of EHV-2 and -5 infections were confirmed in Texas and Kentucky.

Germany confirmed persistent equine arteritis virus infection in one stallion and Switzerland reported one case of this infection.

Equine infectious anemia was diagnosed in France (one Friesian) and the United States (one Quarter Horse racehorse).

Equine piroplasmosis was reported as endemic in France and the United Arab Emirates.

A case of leptospiral abortion was diagnosed in a Thoroughbred mare in France. The United States recorded two cases of nocardioform placentitis and abortion.

Salmonella abortus equi infection was reported by Singapore in five non-Thoroughbred male horses on the same premises; they were part of a performance circus group. Ireland confirmed three outbreaks of salmonellosis on separate premises, and Switzerland recorded one case of salmonellosis (S. enteritidis).

The United States confirmed several cases of clostridial enteritis due to C. perfringens type A, and of equine proliferative enteropathy in foals.

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis was reported by the United States, with 25 out of an annual total of 139 cases diagnosed in the fourth quarter of 2014. The majority of cases were in Florida, Louisiana, New York, and North Carolina.

The United States also confirmed 74 cases of West Nile encephalitis out of an estimated annual total of 140. Texas, Oklahoma, California and Missouri had the highest numbers of cases.

One case of hendra virus infection was confirmed in Queensland, Australia.

Japan recorded single cases of tetanus on two premises.

An outbreak of getah virus infection was confirmed in a group of horses at a training center in Japan. The disease, which was diagnosed in 25 out of 49 febrile horses, was not life-threatening.

Rhodococcal disease was reported as endemic in the United States. Switzerland recorded one case of borreliosis in a horse with anemia that was successfully treated.

*Third Quarter Report for Australia


This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

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Equine Disease Quarterly

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