The International Collating Center, in Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following equine disease outbreaks for the second quarter of 2016*.

In early April, a case of African horse sickness was reported in the Surveillance Zone in the Western Cape of the Republic of South Africa. A total of 20 additional cases of infection with serotype 1 virus were subsequently identified on seven other premises.

Equine influenza was reported by the United Kingdom and the United States. One outbreak involving a limited number of cases was recorded in the United Kingdom. The disease is endemic in the United States; it was confirmed in six states.

Equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) related diseases were reported by France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Respiratory disease was diagnosed in France (seven outbreaks, all isolated cases), Germany (nine cases involving eight premises), Ireland (four cases), and the United States (activity recorded in various states).

Abortion due to EHV-1 was confirmed in France (two outbreaks), Germany (five cases), Japan (single cases on three premises), South Korea (one case), Switzerland (two cases in neonatal foals, one co-infected with Actinobacillus equuli), the United Kingdom (three outbreaks), and the United States (three cases).

Neurologic disease caused by EHV-1 was reported in France (two outbreaks) and the United States (four outbreaks). Neuropathogenic or nonneuropathogenic virus strains were involved.

Respiratory disease caused by EHV-4 was recorded by France (14 outbreaks), Germany (nine cases on six premises), and Switzerland (one outbreak involving co-infection with EHV-1 and -4).

Strangles was reported in France (eight outbreaks), Germany (10 cases involving eight premises), Switzerland (three affected premises), and the United States, where the disease was considered endemic; there, 57 affected premises reported disease in 17 states, 10 with multiple outbreaks.

The United States identified two Warmblood stallion carriers of equine arteritis virus.

A limited number of cases of EHV-2 and/or -5 infection also were recorded in the United States.

Equine infectious anemia was reported by Canada and the United States. Canada confirmed 15 cases, one on a premises in British Columbia and 14 divided between four premises in Saskatchewan, two linked epidemiologically. One case was diagnosed in a nonracing horse in Colorado.

France (endemic), Spain (endemic), and the United States reported cases of equine piroplasmosis. There was an increase in case numbers in the United States; all were Theileria equi-positive racing Quarter Horses, the majority in Texas, with some involved in bush track racing.

Salmonellosis was recorded in Germany (one case) and the United States (seven outbreaks involving Group B Salmonella spp and one Group C1 Salmonella spp).

Outbreaks of rotavirus infection were confirmed in France (13 outbreaks). One involved co-infection with rotavirus and coronavirus.

The United States reported outbreaks of clostridial enteritis; C. difficile was implicated in two outbreaks and C. perfringens in seven others. Isolated cases of coccidiosis and Mycobacterium avium were recorded by Switzerland and Singapore, respectively.

Contagious equine metritis was reported by Germany, with 20 cases confirmed on 12 premises, the majority in stallions. Icelandic, Warmblood, and cold-blood breeds were involved. The United States diagnosed five cases of equine coital exanthema (EHV-3) and one case of nocardioform placentitis (Amycolatopsis spp).

A total of 18 cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis were recorded in the United States, with the majority identified in Florida (11) and South Carolina (5).

West Nile encephalitis reappeared in the second quarter, with single cases confirmed in California and Florida.

The United States reported one case of equine rabies in Arizona.

Switzerland recorded two cases of ehrlichiosis on separate premises.

*First Quarter Report from Australia

This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd’s, London.

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Equine Disease Quarterly

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