International Equine Disease Report, Second Quarter 2013
- Oct 4, 2013
- Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE)
- West Nile Virus (WNV)
- Protein-Losing Enteropathy
- Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
- Equine Herpesvirus (EHV)
- Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)
- Pneumonia (Rhodococcus)
- Hendra virus
- Potomac Horse Fever
- Abortion and Embryonic Death
The International Collating Center, Newmarket, England, and other sources reported the following equine disease outbreaks for the second quarter* of 2013.
Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported from Germany and the United States. The former diagnosed the disease of five premises. Three stallions and five mares (non-Thoroughbreds) were confirmed positive for Tayorella equigenitalis on culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of three infected Warmblood mares imported into Kentucky earlier in 2013, one gave birth to a health foal during the period under review that was culture negative for CEM. A 2-year-old Thoroughbred filly in Florida was confirmed positive for T. equigenitalis prior to export to Puerto Rico. Intensive investigation into the filly's background has failed to identify the source of infection.
Strangles was confirmed in Denmark (six horses on one premises), France (four outbreaks), Sweden (one outbreak), and the United States (endemic with outbreaks in numerous states, including Kentucky, Maine, Texas, and Wyoming).
Equine influenza was reported from Sweden (two outbreaks of single cases), the United Kingdom (seven cases on one premises), and the United States (sporadic cases in at least 10 states).
Equine arteritis virus was isolated from the semen on a carrier stallion in Germany.
Equine herpesvirus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4) related diseases were recorded by Argentina, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. EHV-1 respiratory disease was confirmed in France (two outbreaks), Germany (one outbreak), the United Kingdom (one outbreak) and the United States (outbreaks in Florida and Kentucky). Abortion caused by EHV-1 was reported from Argentina (two cases on one premises), France (single cases on five premises), Germany (four cases on three premises), Japan (15 causes in Thoroughbreds on seven premises), the United Kingdom (a single case) and the United States (single cases on two premises). EHV-1 neurologic disease was recorded in France (single case), the United Kingdom (single case), and the United States (outbreaks in New Jersey and New York, the latter involving four cases at a harness track).
EHV-4 was associated with outbreaks of respiratory disease in Argentina (outbreaks on two premises involving 13 Thoroughbred foals), and France (12 outbreaks). France also reported a single case of abortion due to the virus.
The United States recorded several cases of infection with EHV-2 in Florida and Kentucky and numerous cases of EHV-5 infection.
Reports of equine piroplasmosis were received from France (endemic, sporadic clinical cases), and the United States (19 cases of Theileria equi infection on six premises in southeastern Texas).
Outbreaks of salmonellosis were reported by the United States involving Group B and Groups C1 and C2 salmonellae. The United States also recorded cases of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis in Florida (two) and Kentucky (seven). Rotavirus was confirmed in France (five outbreaks) and Germany (one case). Clostridial enteritis was diagnosed in foals in several U.S. states. The United States also reported a limited number of cases of enteropathy due to Lawsonia intracellularis.
Leptospiral abortion was reported from Argentina (five cases on one premises). Isolated cases of nocardioform abortion were confirmed in Kentucky.
Individual cases of hendra virus infection were diagnosed on two premises in Queensland, Australia.
The United States also reported nine cases of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, and single cases of West Nile virus encephalitis in Ohio and Texas. Rabies was confirmed in the United Arab Emirates (two cases in non-Thoroughbreds) and in the United States (two cases on separate premises).
Germany recorded a case of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a Warmblood mare. Rhodococcal disease was stated to be endemic in the United States with only a percentage of outbreaks being reported.
*First quarter report for Australia.
This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.
About the Author
POLL: University Equine Hospitals