The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom (UK), and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks for the fourth quarter* of 2011.

One case of contagious equine metritis (CEM, Taylorella equigenitalis) was reported in a non- Thoroughbred stallion in Germany.

A new outbreak of dourine was reported in the Bari province of Italy involving one mare; the total number of outbreaks confirmed in Italy in 2011 was seven.

Equine influenza was reported from France (four outbreaks), Germany (single case), the UK (five outbreaks), the United States (two outbreaks), and Sweden. Sweden diagnosed the disease in nine of 10 trotters that were part of a shipment transported to six stables in northern Sweden. Influenza spread to all horses on those premises and to five additional properties. The disease affected 60 trotters on the 11 premises in Sweden.

Strangles was reported from Chile, Germany, Ireland, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates, the UK, and the United States. Chile, Germany, and the UAE diagnosed isolated cases of the disease. Ireland confirmed 37 cases on premises in six counties; Sweden diagnosed strangles in a limited number of young horses and racehorses. The UK reported that the disease was endemic in the country's non-Thoroughbred population. Strangles was confirmed in three states in the United States.

Equine herpesvirus (EHV) respiratory disease was recorded by France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Most of the outbreaks were caused by EHV-4. Abortion as a sequel to EHV-1 infection was diagnosed in isolated cases in France and Germany; Japan and the USA reported three and four cases respectively. One case of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (the neurologic form of the disease) was recorded from Germany. Numerous cases of EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection were reported from the United States, some associated with clinical evidence of respiratory disease.

France reported a single case of equine arteritis virus infection; the USA had a small outbreak of equine viral arteritis on a Texas premises involving nine Paint horses.

Equine infectious anemia was confirmed in Germany in isolated cases on two premises.

Equine piroplasmosis (EP) was reported from France, the UAE, and the USA. The disease was considered endemic in France and the UAE. The United States detected a limited number of asymptomatic cases of infection with Theileria equi, mostly in Quarter Horse racehorses, a significant percentage of which were imported animals. The number of seropositive EP horses has declined over the past six to nine months of 2011.

Eastern equine encephalomyelitis was only reported from the United States in nine animals (a total of 63 for 2011). Over 50% of the cases occurred in Wisconsin (34) with the remainder in six other states.

Italy and the USA reported cases of West Nile virus (WNV). Ninety outbreaks involving 857 horses were confirmed in Italy, of which 189 animals tested positive; 58 displayed clinical signs; and 14 died. The United States reported 49 WNV cases, resulting in a total of 115 cases in 2011.

The third quarter of 2011 saw an increase in Hendra virus activity and distribution in Queensland and New South Wales in Australia. The disease was confirmed on seven properties on the north coast of New South Wales. Queensland reported 13 cases, one west of the Great Dividing Range. Neurologic clinical signs (not respiratory signs) characterized cases of the disease.

Ireland, Switzerland, and the United States reported outbreaks of salmonellosis. Most involved isolated cases caused by S. typhimurium, Salmonella Group B, Group C1, or untyped organisms.

A significant number of outbreaks of rotavirus infection were reported from Argentina. Disease of variable clinical severity was diagnosed in foals on eight premises. The United States confirmed two cases of equine clostridial enteritis (Clostridium perfringens type A) and a variable number of cases of Lawsonia intracellularis enteropathy in foals in two states. Switzerland reported an outbreak of equine atypical myopathy involving three cases; all were fatal. Leptospiral abortion (11 cases) was diagnosed in Kentucky in the United States.

*Third Quarter Report for Australia

This is an excerpt from Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by underwriters at Lloyd's, London, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

About the Author

Equine Disease Quarterly

Equine Disease Quarterly is a quarterly equine disease research newsletter published by the University of Kentucky's Gluck Equine Research Center, and funded by underwriters at Lloyd's of London, brokers, and their agents.

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