International Equine Disease Report First Quarter 2010

The International Collating Center, Newmarket, United Kingdom, and other sources reported the following disease outbreaks.

Contagious equine metritis (CEM) was reported from France, Germany, the UK, and the USA. France confirmed a single case in a Trotter. Two mares were cultured positive for Taylorella equigenitalis in Germany. The UK reported two cases on separate premises, one involving an Arabian stallion and the other a Highland mare. In the USA , one additional stallion (non-Thoroughbred) was cultured positive for T. equigenitalis. The stallion, which had been identified with the 2008/09 CEM event, had not been tested until early 2010.

Outbreaks of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV- 1) related respiratory diseases were reported on single premises in three states in the USA. The UK confirmed two cases of respiratory infection due to EHV-4. Outbreaks of EHV-1 abortion were reported from Argentina, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Switzerland, the UAE , UK, and USA. Single cases in Thoroughbreds were confirmed in Argentina, Germany, and the UAE. France reported 10 cases on seven premises, the majority involving Thoroughbred mares. Four outbreaks were recorded in Ireland, with nine abortions on one premises (all in vaccinated Thoroughbred mares) and single cases on each of three additional farms. Japan reported 26 abortions in Thoroughbreds involving 10 premises, the majority in vaccinated mares. Two cases of EHV-1 abortion on one premises were confirmed in Switzerland. In the UK, nine cases of abortion and one neonatal death in Thoroughbreds were diagnosed on individual premises. The USA reported 16 abortions, the majority in Thoroughbreds. Isolated cases of EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy were recorded in France and the UK. Japan reported five cases in vaccinated horses on one premises. An extensive outbreak was reported from Switzerland in which 10 of 20 horses and a donkey developed neurologic signs, with four horses having to be euthanized. The USA confirmed limited occurrences of the disease in Louisiana, Massachusetts, and New Jersey.

Equine influenza was reported from Ireland, Sweden, and the USA. The disease was diagnosed in 10 partially vaccinated Thoroughbreds on two premises in Sweden. An isolated outbreak of respiratory disease in mini-donkeys in the USA was associated with evidence of concurrent influenza virus and EH V-1 infections.

Strangles was reported from Chile, France, Germany, Ireland, Korea, Sweden, the UAE, UK, and USA . Some countries regarded the disease as endemic, whereas others recorded limited outbreaks, especially in non-Thoroughbred horses, many of which were unvaccinated.

Many countries consider equine piroplasmosis endemic in their respective equine populations. As of early April, the USA reported 376 of 2,172 horses tested seropositive for Babesia (Theileria) equi, of which 292 were under quarantine on the index ranch in Texas. Additional seropositive horses are in quarantine in 10 states, including Texas. Only one of 861 in-contact horses in 17 states was confirmed seropositive. Testing for interstate shipment or movement to events resulted in 17 B. equi seropositive horses detected at racetracks in New Mexico. There is evidence that certain tick species on the index premises are capable of transmission of the infection.

France, Germany, Italy, and the UK confirmed cases of equine infectious anemia (EIA). Germany recorded seven cases on premises in one district; Italy reported three cases of subclinical infection on individual premises; the UK diagnosed EIA in two horses imported from Romania through Belgium.

Thirteen cases of leptospiral abortion due to L. interrogans serovar pomona were diagnosed in Kentucky, USA. The USA also reported four cases of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in foals confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Two cases of equine viral arteritis were diagnosed in Germany based on virus isolation and PCR. Sweden reported a single case of salmonellosis in a Trotter.

* Fourth Quarter 2009 Report for Australia

This is an excerpt from the July 2010 issue of Equine Disease Quarterly, funded by Lloyd's of London underwriters, brokers, and their Kentucky agents.

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Equine Disease Quarterly

Equine Disease Quarterly is a quarterly equine disease research newsletter published by the University of Kentucky's Gluck Equine Research Center, and funded by underwriters at Lloyd's of London, brokers, and their agents.

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