Horse Health Glossary

Not sure what that veterinary word means? Look it up below!

Reprinted with permission from the University of California, Davis, The Book of Horses edited by Mordecai Siegal.

GALVAYNE'S GROOVE:
A dark line that forms on the outside of the corner incisor teeth; its length and appearance are useful in aging a horse.
GAMETES:
Reproductive cells, each containing a single set of chromosomes; ova (eggs) in the female and spermatozoa (sperm) in the male.
GAMETOGAMY:
Sexual reproduction involving the formation of male and female reproductive cells which fuse to form a zygote; also called syngamy.
GANGRENE:
Death and decay of tissue, usually owing to the loss of blood supply and subsequent invasion by bacteria.
GAS COLIC:
Colic caused by overconsumption of lush grass feed, resulting in excessive gas production in the intestine.
GASKIN:
The portion of the hind limb below the stifle.
GASTRIC:
Pertaining to the stomach.
GASTRITIS:
Inflammation of the stomach.
GASTROESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER:
Sphincter located between the esophagus and the stomach.
GASTROSCOPY:
Endoscopic examination of the stomach.
GASTRULA:
An early stage of the developing embryo that follows the blastula stage.
GAUGE:
A measure of the diameter of an injection needle.
GELDING:
Castrated male horse.
GENE LINKAGE:
Phenomenon wherein genes located on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together more often than they are split apart.
GENERA:
Plural form of genus.
GENES:
The individual units of inheritance, composed of stretches of DNA found along the chromosomes within the nucleus of every cell.
GENOME:
The total genetic information of an individual cell or virus.
GENOTYPE:
The genetic makeup of a given physical trait; also, the total genetic makeup of an individual organism.
GENUS (PLURAL: GENERA):
One of the major classifying categories of taxonomy, further divided into species or subgenera.
GERIATRICS:
Branch of medical science concerned with the diseases, disabilities, and care of aged patients.
GESTATION:
The full period of pregnancy, from fertilization of the egg by a spermatozoon until birth.
GIARDIASIS:
Chronic diarrhea caused by the protozoan Giardia.
GINGIVA:
The gums of the mouth.
GINGIVITIS:
Inflammation of the gums.
GLAND:
Collection of cells that produces secretions or excretions of a specialized character.
GLANDERS:
An ancient and once worldwide bacterial disease of equids, now rare and restricted to certain areas of the Middle East and Asia; caused by Pseudomonas mallei.
GLANS PENIS:
The cap-shaped termination of the penile shaft.
GLAUCOMA:
Group of diseases caused by increased pressure within the eyeball, which damages the optic nerve and can result in blindness.
GLOBE:
The eyeball.
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR):
Rate at which the kidney glomeruli filter the blood passing through them.
GLOMERULONEPHRITIS:
An inflammatory disease involving the capillaries (small blood vessels) of the kidney glomeruli.
GLOMERULUS (PLURAL: GLOMERULI):
Any one of the many tiny clusters of blood vessels within the kidney; they filter waste products from the blood and excrete them in the form of urine, which is transported to the bladder for elimination.
GLUCOCORTICOIDS:
Steroid hormones such as cortisol that are produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland; they elevate blood sugar levels, increase fat and protein breakdown and the secretion of stomach acid, and exert an anti-inflammatory effect on conditions such as arthritis and dermatitis.
GLUCOSE:
Blood sugar, the body's most important fuel molecule.
GLUCOSURIA:
Spillage of glucose into the urine, as in diabetes mellitus.
GLYCOGEN:
Animal starch; a complex carbohydrate stored primarily in the liver and muscles, and broken down into its component glucose (sugar) molecules whenever they are needed by the body.
GOITER:
An enlarged thyroid gland.
GOITROGEN:
Any substance that causes goiter.
GONADAL HYPOPLASIA:
Underdevelopment of the gonads (testes or ovaries).
GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH):
Hormone released from the hypothalamus of the brain, that triggers the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland.
GONADS:
Ovaries (in the mare) and testes (in the stallion); the reproductive glands that produce ova (eggs) in the female and spermatozoa (sperm) in the male, as well as the sex hormones progesterone and estrogen (ovaries), and testosterone (testes).
GOSSYPOL:
A toxic fatty acid that can be found in cottonseed meal.
GRAM STAIN:
A routine stain used for the laboratory identification of bacteria.
GRANULA IRIDICA:
Corpora nigra.
GRANULAR CELL LAYER:
A layer of cells within the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin; it lies above the prickle cell layer and below the horny layer.
GRANULATION TISSUE:
Newly formed, velvety tissue, rich in blood vessels but lacking nerve endings, that develops at the site of a healing wound; "proud flesh."
GRANULE:
A tiny grain or particle.
GRANULOCYTES:
White blood cells that contain stainable granules; examples include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
GRANULOCYTIC LEUKEMIA:
Cancer of granulocytes.
GRANULOMA:
Lesion indicative of a chronic inflammatory response, characterized by the accumulation of white blood cells around an offending agent for the purpose of walling off the agent from the rest of the body.
GRANULOSA CELLS:
The cells that surround the developing ovarian follicle.
GRAVEL:
Common term describing drainage at the coronary band of the foot; caused by infection that migrates up the hoof wall and breaks out as an abscess at the coronary band.
GREASE HEEL:
General term for a variety of inflammatory skin conditions affecting the pastern region.
GROSS APPEARANCE:
Appearance as viewed by the unaided (naked) eye; as opposed to microscopic appearance.
GROWTH HORMONE (GH):
Hormone produced by the pituitary gland; it controls the rate of body growth.
GUTTURAL POUCH:
In horses, an internal sac that represents an outgrowth of the eustachian tube, the short canal that connects the middle ear with the back of the throat and that acts to equalize pressure within the ear.
GUTTURAL POUCH EMPYEMA:
Accumulation of the pus in the guttural pouch, often a complication of strangles.
GUTTURAL POUCH MYCOSIS:
Fungal infection of the guttural pouch, usually caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.
GUTTURAL POUCH TYMPANY:
Distension of the guttural pouch.
GYMKHANA:
Athletic event.

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